Dental caries are among the most common dental diseases, targeting about 80-98% of Romanians and that is done by localized and gradually loss of dental hard under the influence of many factors including: poor oral hygiene, increased consumption of food rich in sugar, stress, smoking and other causes.
In the oral cavity were discovered more than 300 species of bacteria that is local bacterial flora, but studies proved that the streptococcus play a major role in the production and evolution of tooth decay.
Leftover food, especially carbohydrates, are required to develop the bacteria source. Microbial metabolism produces acids that frees in the mouth. Even if they are weak acids, their prolonged action over enamel, produces its erosion, leading to tooth decay.
Initially, tooth decays do not show symptoms, but the dentist, after clinical and radiological examination can detect the presence of caries.
As caries reaches the dentin, tooth sensitivity arises in particular when in contact with sweet hot or sour beverages or foods. Once the pulp is affected, the pain occurs, which is accented by hot or cold, fizzy and sweet foods or drinks. In this case, it is recommended to go to the dentist for treatment of caries.
Types of cavities
Depending on their evolution, caries can be:
– Progressive slow decay
– stationary decay
– Rapidly progressive decay
Depending on the degree of dental tissue affection, caries can be
– without hollows
– with hollow (affecting the enamel and dentin)
Depending on the location, cavities can be located on:
– pits and fissures on occlusal wall
– On the root surface of the tooth
– The gingival portion of the tooth
– Secondary caries to a filling
– Recurrent caries beneath restorations
Treatment of dental caries varies according to the degree of development of dental injury. Incipient caries, without hollows, can be treated with a fluorinated solution that stops evolving dental tissue degradation, the duty of the pacient being to respect the basics of oral hygiene.
In case of hollow cavities, altered tissue must be removed and the cavity obtained from this process will be filled with a filling.
More severe dental caries that rapidly evolve and produce profound deterioration requires most often a root canal, targeting primarily the removal of nerve and sealing the canal, followed by coating teeth with crowns or restoring the tooth by filling it.
The most effective way to prevent tooth decay is represented by compliance with oral hygiene by having minimum 2 correct brushing daily with fluoride toothpaste, mouthwash use and flossing.
The food should not be ignored, is recommended to avoid foods containing high quantity of carbohydrates, such as bread, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, or eggs.
Also, vices such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption harms dental health, as well as general health, so it is recommended to give up them.
Besides all tooth decay prevention measures listed above, you should also regularly consult the dentist.