Indications for Dental Implant Restoration
A dental implant is a device inserted through a surgical procedure at the periosteal or bone level, intended to replace a missing dental unit.
The main difference between traditional prosthetic works and dental implants is that the latter restores both the root and crown of the tooth.
A dental implant is, in fact, an artificial root placed in the position of a lost one. A dental crown will be applied over it.
Anesthesia removes any pain or discomfort, allowing the patient to cooperate with the dentist during the surgical procedure, and the postoperative condition is similar to that after a dental extraction.
Situations in which dental implant treatment is indicated:
- The space created by missing dental units: with the loss of teeth, the alveolar bone undergoes changes manifested through resorption. The residual bony crest must have certain characteristics to support the insertion of an implant. For this, the specialist will perform an analysis based on imaging examinations and will choose the optimal solution for the case.
- Teeth with an indication for extraction: dental units affected by extensive carious processes that cannot benefit from conservative prosthetic treatment, mobile teeth for which periodontal treatment does not improve the condition, or trauma leading to the loss of teeth from the dental arches.
Materials used in dental implant fabrication:
As dental implants are inserted into bone, representing the root portion of the teeth, they must be well integrated and accepted at this level to achieve osseointegration. The major requirement in this case is biocompatibility with the surrounding tissues.
Currently, the materials of choice used in implantology are titanium and zirconia. The characteristics that recommend them are as follows:
- Biocompatibility: they do not harm the surrounding tissues, are accepted and integrated into the organism, and do not cause allergic reactions.
- Stiffness: occlusal forces will be transmitted through the dental crown to the implant, so it must have a high degree of resistance.
Titanium has been successfully used in the last decades, with a success rate of over 95%, which still makes it widely used. The issue is related to the gray color that, in some cases, may show through the gingiva and affect the aesthetics of the soft tissues.
Zirconia comes with an improvement in this regard. Having a white hue, aesthetic problems are eliminated. As for resistance and biocompatibility with the surrounding tissues, studies have shown similar results to those of titanium.
Superimposed Prosthetic Work:
After applying the dental implant, it needs a period of adaptation and integration into the bone before the prosthetic work covering it is applied.
Depending on the chosen treatment plan, we can have dental crowns, bridges, or even removable dentures superimposed on the implants. These will be attached using complex systems such as screwing, caps, slides, or cementing.
The materials used in making the superimposed prosthetic pieces can be entirely ceramic or variations of it on different supports: gold, titanium, zirconia, or alloys.
Dental implants are complex prosthetic works that have a favorable prognosis over time. However, to detect any problem early and ensure optimal hygiene maintenance of the implant, dental check-ups should be performed every 6 months.