Acrylic resins are materials used in a variety of industries, including dentistry, construction, the electronics industry and household product manufacturing. These resins are valued for their mechanical, thermal and electrical insulation properties. However, like most chemicals, acrylic resins can cause adverse reactions in some people. In this academic article, we will explore and discuss the main adverse reactions associated with the use of acrylic resins, as well as possible preventive measures and solutions to minimize them.
One of the most common adverse reactions associated with acrylic resins is allergic hypersensitivity reaction. This can range from mild irritation to severe allergic reactions. The main cause of these reactions is direct contact of the acrylic resin with the sensitive skin or mucous membranes of susceptible individuals. Symptoms may include redness, itching, swelling, rash or even contact dermatitis. In severe cases, breathing difficulties or anaphylactic reactions may occur, requiring emergency medical attention.
Irritation of mucous membranes
The use of acrylic resins in dentistry or in the manufacture of dentures can lead to irritation of the oral mucosa. Direct contact of acrylic resins with the delicate tissues of the mouth can cause inflammation and discomfort. Symptoms may include redness, pain, swelling and bleeding of the gums or oral mucosa. In rare cases, prolonged use or use in large quantities can lead to mucosal damage or ulceration.
General toxic reactions
Acrylic resins may contain volatile chemical compounds or release chemicals into the air during the polymerization process or by thermal decomposition. These substances may be inhaled and cause systemic adverse reactions. Associated symptoms may vary depending on the chemical compounds involved, but may include headaches, dizziness, eye or respiratory tract irritation, nausea or fatigue. It is important that users of acrylic resins work in a well-ventilated environment and follow appropriate safety measures to prevent inhalation of toxic substances.
There are now many dental materials that are widely used in dentistry.
Their composition is varied, their qualities multiple and their production processes different, so that the materials are individualized to therapies.
For each clinical situation that arises, there are several treatment options, so that the doctor, with the patient’s consent, chooses the optimal variant that satisfies the requirements of both.
The emergence of numerous dental materials and the improvement of mechanical qualities through the modification of inorganic and organic components, however, also increases the risk of patients developing adverse reactions.
Ideally, materials used in oral cavity restorations should be prophylactic, i.e. they should not cause damage to the mucosa they come into contact with.
Often, however, by failing to follow the manufacturer’s dosages at the time of mixing, or due to unfavorable patient terrain with sensitivity to certain components, materials can cause ulceration or inflammation of the structures they come into contact with.
Contact allergies generated by acrylic materials often present a non-specific inflammatory or keratotic lesion appearance, with white filamentous mucosal deposits.
Other times, the clinical forms are a combination of reddish inflammatory and white, keratotic lesions.
Prosthetic materials, especially acrylics, may act through the acrylic monomer left free after polymerization or through other chemical compounds.
They can thus generate allergic reactions on the areas of contact with the mucous membrane which may be localized or, conversely, spread to the surrounding integuments.
Among the manifestations of allergic reactions, the most common is:
Stomatitis is a rash on the mucous membrane of the mouth.
This reaction can be generated by contact with acrylate. Clinically, it materializes as areas of intense inflammation of the mucosa.
In particular cases, erosions or small bubbles may also occur. Most often they appear at the site of contact with the allergen, i.e. the lips, gums, tongue, hard palate or cheeks.
Very rarely it can present as a generalized stomatitis, encompassing all the structures of the oral cavity.
The dentist must differentiate these allergic reactions from decubitus lesions caused by microtrauma due to long-term wear of dentures or their poor adaptation.
In the case of old denture wearers, after a certain period of time, the denture base no longer follows the contours of the ridges to which it was fitted due to continuous changes in the soft tissues.
This requires rebasing to reassure the dentures’ tightness and stability.
The monomer contained in the relining material may cause allergic reactions in patients.
This is a factor that is often overlooked when it comes to allergies or other iatrogens occurring in the doctor’s surgery.
Poor hygiene can aggravate the manifestations of a pre-existing allergy. Bacterial plaque consists of a deposit that is constantly present on dental surfaces in quantities that are closely related to dental hygiene.
Allergic reactions can be minimized in the dental surgery by following the steps of an intervention but also by the patient reporting certain allergies during the history and maintaining satisfactory oral hygiene.
Preventive measures and solutions
To minimize adverse reactions associated with the use of acrylic resins, the following preventive measures can be considered:
Personal protective equipment: Users of acrylic resins should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves, respiratory protection masks, goggles and special work clothing. This will help reduce direct exposure to chemicals and prevent allergic reactions or irritation.
Adequate ventilation: It is essential to work in a well-ventilated environment, especially when handling or curing acrylic resins. Adequate ventilation helps disperse chemicals into the air and reduces the risk of inhalation.
Pre-testing: Before using acrylic resins, it is advisable to pre-test a small area of skin or mucous membranes to check for possible allergic reactions or irritation. This is particularly important in dentistry, where acrylic resins come into direct contact with sensitive oral mucosa.
Use high-quality products: It is recommended to use high-quality acrylic resins that have been tested and certified for safety. These products tend to contain fewer impurities and volatile chemicals, reducing the risk of adverse reactions.
Proper education and training: Users of acrylic resins should receive proper training on the proper handling, storage and use of these materials. Proper knowledge of safety measures and working procedures can help prevent accidents and adverse reactions.
The use of acrylic resins brings many benefits in different areas, but it is important to consider and understand the potential associated adverse reactions. Allergic reactions, mucosal irritation and general toxic reactions can occur following exposure to these materials. By following preventive measures and using personal protective equipment correctly, users can minimize the risk of adverse reactions. In addition, the selection of high-quality products and proper education can contribute to the safe use of acrylic resins.
Although adverse reactions may occur in isolated cases, it is important that users are aware of their possibility and are prepared to act accordingly. If an adverse reaction occurs, it is recommended to stop using acrylic resin immediately and seek medical attention, especially in cases where symptoms are severe or persistent.
Continued research and monitoring of acrylic resins is also necessary to better identify and understand potential risks and adverse reactions. This can contribute to the development of safer materials and the adoption of more effective safety protocols and standards in the industry.
The use of acrylic resins can result in adverse reactions ranging from allergic reactions and irritation to general toxic reactions.
By taking preventative measures, using appropriate personal protective equipment and educating users appropriately, the risk of adverse reactions can be minimized and the safe use of these materials can be promoted. Although adverse reactions may occur in some cases, it is important to recognize and manage these risks to ensure a safe and healthy working environment for all involved.