Dental cavities, some bad habits, a number of genetic abnormalities or congenital defects can cause the loss of dental substance. Odontal treatment may also arise on marmoration, stains and pits and fissures cracks. After removing the altered tissue, the tooth remains with a cavity that needs to be filled. This operation can be done directly in the dental office using fillings, or indirectly in the laboratory through inlay.
Dental fillings are made of several materials, which have different qualities. They are chosen according to the clinical situation, for example, for a deep cavity you can choose a sandwich filling that might require two or three materials. At the base of the cavity are used materials that don’t affect the pulp, followed by more aesthetic and more resistant materials.
MATERIALS USED IN RESTORING DENTAL CAVITIES
They are custom made in the laboratory and then cemented on the tooth. Inlays made of gold are well accepted by gum tissue and shows high resistance for approximately 20 years. By these reasons, many dentists consider gold as the best filling material. But it is the most expensive and the filling is done during multiple visits.
It is increasingly rarely used because of the lack of aesthetics. It is obtained by mixing a powder of silver with mercury. It is accused of possible harmful effects even in small quantities.
GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS
They slowly release fluoride that help to strengthen tooth’s structure. They have better aesthetics than amalgams having the color close to the natural shade of the teeth, but not perfect. It has the advantage of making adhesion even in wet conditions. This material is recommended for children in temporary tooth fillings, and in adults when restoring the posterior teeth. Its resistance is very high with a lifespan of between 2 and 5 years.
They are the most commonly used materials in dentistry for dental fillings execution. These materials are used both frontal teeth, with a perfect aesthetic, and on the posterior teeth, where beside aesthetic function, shows a great strength. Colors can be choosen from nearly 30 different shades and 4 opacities, invisible dental fillings becoming an achievable goal. Fluoresce and similar opalescent color of natural teeth and the dental tissue that is in contact with.
There are hybrid filling material, which possesses properties from both dental composites, and glassionomer. These materials are active ions, releasing a lower amount of fluoride, with a favorable effect on tooth structure. Instead, comparing with glasionomers, they have an increased resistance to tooth wear.
There are cases in which cavities are located deep, near the pulp chamber, so that additional protection is needed by fillings base. Calcium hydroxide offers medication and gives local repair mechanisms.
Dental fillings and their RESISTANCE during time
There are factors that may influence resistance and aesthetic of dental fillings such as poor hygiene, excessive consumption of coffee, smoking, vicious habits, trauma and also patient non-compliance of periodical checks and professional cleaning.