Mucositis and peri implantitis


Mucositis and peri implantitis

Prosthodontics comes with various solutions in terms of rehabilitating the patient’s smile.

Dental implants have become a common practice in dental surgeries, which more and more patients can afford.

Of course, there are also other ways of protecting edentulous gaps such as dental bridges or even full dentures if there are no teeth in the arch. However, the best way to preserve the alveolar bone is to apply dental implants.

The success rate of dental implants is high, at over 95%.

In a few cases, less than 5%, various inflammatory processes occur, such as mucositis or peri-implantitis, which, if not treated at an early stage, can lead to the loss of implants.

Features

Mucositis is the early stage of periimplantitis. Its characteristics include:

  • It is an inflammatory lesion that can sometimes be caused by infectious diseases, immune deficiencies or some medications.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can also cause oral mucositis.

  • Preventing mucositis, or rather reducing its severity, is done by following strict oral care protocols. These are explained to the patient by the dentist, who must also check that they are followed.

This can be done by bringing the patient in for regular check-ups at the dental surgery.

Treatment of mucositis, especially that caused by chemo- and radio-treated conditions, can be achieved recently by applying a spray based on zinc gluconate and taurine.

This spray is intended to heal oral lesions and relieve the resulting pain.

Peri-implantitis is a mucositis that spreads to the deep layers and rarely occurs after dental implants.

Mild inflammation, occurring after implant application, is mucositis and is treated by local, non-invasive methods, with no consequences on the life span of the implant.

However, deep tissue inflammation is often accompanied by bone loss.

In this case, we are talking about peri-implantitis and it is the main cause of dental implant loss.

Causes

Among the risk factors for peri-implantitis, we mention:

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy – are the most important risk factors. Mucositis can quite frequently develop into periimplantitis, especially in patients undergoing the above-mentioned treatments.

Poor oral hygiene – the dentist indicates the main and secondary means of hygiene, so that patients are protected from complications.

By following hygiene protocols, the risk of complications is minimal.

However, a considerable amount of bacterial plaque will lead to periimplantitis, both in healthy patients and those undergoing other treatments that lower immunity.

Smoking – normally smoking patients are not eligible for dental implants.

Moreover, if dental implants are placed and the patient continues to smoke without following the doctor’s instructions, the risk of failure increases considerably.

Mucositis and periimplantitis are asymptomatic in the initial stages and are discovered during routine check-ups.

Later, changes in gum color, bleeding, pus pockets and mobility of the dental implant occur, which can quite often lead to its loss.

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