Throughout life, patients’ health fluctuates according to many factors, from those related to the surrounding micro-organisms to environmental factors.

The body adapts more quickly or more slowly to these permanent changes.

Hence the changes in the oral cavity.

If the local flora manages these fluctuations well, then oral health is not affected. If disturbances occur, with bacteria dominating the local defence factors, then the result is disruption of the balance.

In the early stages, treatment of oral lesions is conservative.

The protocol includes oral hygiene sessions, followed by filling the carious lesions or, if they also involve the nerve, endodontic treatments.

In the case of gingivitis or periodontitis, maintaining high levels of hygiene and minimizing the concentration of bacterial flora helps to halt the progression of the disease.

Surgical treatment in the oral region is required when conservative options have either failed or have been exhausted and the next step is radical.

The need for invasive, surgical treatments may arise as a complication of a pre-existing untreated or treated pathological process or de novo, on a tooth that has not previously suffered.

Objectives of surgical treatments

The aim of surgical therapy is to reduce the intensity of pain, remove an infectious focus, restore the function of the dento-maxillary apparatus or correct aesthetic function.

  • Tooth extraction – is a surgical procedure indicated in a variety of situations such as an impacted wisdom molar under the gum lining or dental crowding requiring space creation for orthodontic purposes.

Another common situation requiring tooth extraction is deep carious processes.

Unfortunately, the micro-organisms responsible for the development and progression of dental caries cannot be completely removed from the oral cavity. This means that only good hygiene can help reduce their number. Failure to follow some basic rules in maintaining oral health leads to imbalances which, in serious cases, can result in the need to extract the teeth concerned.

  • Dental implants – there are various reasons why patients may lose teeth. Whether we are talking about trauma, carious lesions or periodontal disease, there will always be cases of patients turning to their dentist to replace missing units.

A dental implant is the ideal solution in this case but it involves perforating the cortical bone and inserting materials to replace the missing root, making it a potentially risky surgery.

  • Pathologies of the temporomandibular joint and skeletal anomalies of the facial bones require, depending on the severity of the symptoms and the severity of the case, corrective surgery.

  • Biopsy of oral tissues is performed when tumor pathology is suspected. Under local anesthesia, tissue is removed from the affected area and sent to the laboratory for detailed analysis.

  • Facial trauma can affect both the harmony of this region and the functions of the dento-maxillary apparatus such as mastication, phonation, breathing and swallowing. Surgery repairs these defects, restoring the patient’s aesthetic appearance and functionality.

Surgical interventions are always carried out by specialized personnel, following a thorough medical history and complementary examinations, in order to minimize the risk of failure or recurrence of the pathology for which the intervention was performed.

As regards surgical treatments in the oral cavity, there are various options available to patients, depending on their individual needs.

One of the most common surgical treatments is tooth extraction, which is performed when a tooth is damaged or infected, or to make room for other dental procedures.

Another common surgical treatment is gum recontouring, which involves altering the shape and size of the gums to improve the appearance of the smile and reduce oral health problems.

In addition, orthodontic surgery can be used to correct tooth alignment problems, and dental implants can be used to replace missing teeth.

More complex problems, such as tumors of the oral cavity or jaw, may require more extensive surgery.

Before undergoing any surgical treatment to the oral cavity, it is important to talk to your dentist to understand the options available, the risks and benefits of each procedure and to choose the best solution for your individual needs.

Regardless of the surgical treatment chosen, it is important to follow all of your dentist’s instructions for post-operative care, such as proper oral hygiene and avoiding hard foods or chewing gum.

In general, oral surgery is safe and effective with a relatively short recovery time. However, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, such as excessive bleeding, infections or allergic reactions to anesthesia.

Before performing oral surgery, your dentist will discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure with you and provide you with all the information you need to make an informed decision.

In summary, oral cavity surgery is an effective means of treating a variety of dental and oral health problems. With proper planning and adequate post-operative care, these procedures can be performed safely and successfully.

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