Recurrent mouth ulcers are a common condition of the oral cavity, characterized by the presence of painful ulcers that periodically appear and disappear. Recurrent mouth ulcers are benign and self-limiting conditions, but can be very uncomfortable for patients and affect their quality of life. In this article, we discuss the causes of recurrent mouth ulcers, symptoms and available treatment options.


The exact cause is not known. However, it is thought that it may be related to a combination of factors, such as:

  • Stress and anxiety

  • Oral trauma

  • Inadequate nutrition or nutrition containing irritating foods

  • Nutritional deficiencies, such as iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies

  • Infections of the oral cavity, such as viral or bacterial infections

  • Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Crohn’s disease


Symptoms of UBR include painful ulcers that appear on the oral mucosa, usually inside the cheeks, lips or tongue.

They can be of different sizes, from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

The ulcers may be covered by a whitish or yellow exudate, and the pain may be more intense when eating or speaking.


Diagnosis of UBR is based on examination of the oral cavity and discussion with the patient to identify possible underlying causes.

If necessary, the doctor may recommend blood tests to assess levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid or other tests to rule out autoimmune disease or other conditions.

Treatment In romana scrie Tatament

Treatment for recurrent mouth ulcers focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing ulcers from recurring. Some treatment options include:

  • Use of topical medications, such as gels or lozenges containing local anesthetics or anti-inflammatory agents

  • Use of gargling with antiseptic or analgesic solutions to reduce pain and inflammation

  • Taking nutritional supplements to correct any nutritional deficiencies

  • Avoiding irritating foods or foods that may aggravate symptoms

  • Reducing stress and anxiety through relaxation techniques such as yoga or meditation

Recurrent mouth ulcers

The oral cavity is constantly exposed to environmental factors that can damage the mucous membranes lining it.

Whether it’s in the form of hard, overheated food or chemical factors, these cause mouth ulcers, also known as mouth ulcers.

In addition to these factors, incorrectly fitted prosthetic work or fillings that do not fit properly can be irritating thorns that cause mucosal changes.

Canker sores can occur singly or recurrently, i.e. they can occur in the oral cavity at regular intervals.

In the first case, if canker sores occur only once, they are due to transient local changes caused mainly by food.

On the other hand, in the second case, when thrush is recurrent and recurs at certain intervals, then it may be a chronic irritant causing constant, low- or medium-intensity changes to the oral mucosa.

Normally, once the irritant is removed, the mucosa regenerates and the canker sores no longer appear.

Cold sores:

  • Minor mouth ulcers – are the most common form of mouth ulcers and are isolated or conflicting. They affect only the non-keratinized mucosa and the most common site of occurrence is the dorsal aspect of the tongue. They never spread to the fixed gingiva or hard palate. Their shape is oval with a whitish-grey center and a red, erythematous margin. The diameter is small, about 2-3 millimeters. They heal spontaneously in about two weeks and do not form scars. They are quite painful at first but the intensity decreases over the following days

  • Major aphthous ulcers – tend to be larger in diameter, over 1 centimeter and irregular in outline. They are most often found individually and not in confluent clusters. They may be present in non-keratinized mucous membranes for more than 2-3 weeks and the healing process almost always ends with scarring.

  • Canker sores – occur very rarely, only 5% of patients with mouth ulcers have this severe form. The name comes from their resemblance to lesions produced by the herpes virus. They are enlarged in size, have a non-homogeneous contour and color and heal slowly.

Herpetiform canker sores never involve the fixed gum or hard palate, in contrast to the actual herpetic lesions caused by the herpes virus.

In addition to the mechanical, thermal and chemical traumatic factors mentioned in the etiology of oral thrush, there are other, endogenous factors that are implicated in both the development and maintenance of oral thrush. These factors predispose to recurrent mouth ulcers, which recur at short intervals in the oral mucosa:

  • Hereditary predisposition – mouth ulcers are more common in members of the same family

  • Iron, folic acid and vitamin B deficiencies – also increase the incidence of oral thrush. Iron deficiency is commonly found. Whether it’s a lack of iron in the diet or, in women, the pre-menopausal period, iron deficiency in the body leads to recurrent mouth ulcers.

In the case of simple thrush, therapy may not be needed, as it heals spontaneously. On the other hand, in the case of recurrent mouth ulcers it is necessary to investigate the causes that lead to their appearance.


Recurrent mouth ulcers are common conditions of the oral cavity, characterized by the presence of painful ulcerations that appear and disappear periodically. The exact cause of recurrent mouth ulcers is not known, but it is thought that it may be related to a combination of factors, such as stress, oral trauma, poor nutrition or infections of the oral cavity.

Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing recurrence of ulcers by using topical medications, gargling with antiseptic solutions, taking nutritional supplements and reducing stress and anxiety.

In general, recurrent mouth ulcers are benign and self-limiting conditions that can be treated effectively.

However, if recurrent mouth ulcers are accompanied by other symptoms, such as joint pain or fever, or persist for more than two weeks, it is important to talk to your doctor to rule out other underlying causes and receive appropriate treatment.

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