Systemic gastrointestinal and hematological diseases are conditions that affect the whole body, including the mouth.
Oral manifestations of these diseases are important signs that may indicate the presence of a more serious health problem.
Gastrointestinal diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis can lead to ulcers and erosions in the oral cavity, as well as pain and bleeding gums. They can also lead to changes in taste and unpleasant odor in the mouth.
Hematological diseases, such as anemia, can also have oral manifestations.
Anemia can lead to inflammation of the gums and slight bleeding, as well as changes in the color of the lips and tongue.
It can also have a negative effect on the taste and general condition of the oral cavity.
Early diagnosis of these conditions can be essential for effective treatment and prevention of further complications.
It is therefore important to pay attention to oral signs and symptoms and to consult a doctor if they persist or worsen.
In addition, a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and good oral hygiene, can help prevent these oral manifestations from developing.
It is important to avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, as these can aggravate the conditions and may be contributing factors.
Treatment for these conditions may vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. Treatment may include medication, lifestyle changes, nutritional therapy or surgery, depending on the case.
The body is a whole, a complex structure in which each component relates to the others and contributes to its optimal functioning.
The oral cavity has an important anatomical location and key roles in the processes of mastication, swallowing, breathing, phonation, physiognomy and immunity. In many cases, systemic diseases or pathologies of other organs also affect this segment, with oral lesions often preceding the onset of symptoms of the underlying disease.
Being part of the digestive system, the oral cavity is often affected by pathologies that start in the lower segments of this tract.
Also called regional enteritis, it is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that can affect any region of the tract. The oral cavity is present in about 10% of Crohn’s disease patients and may include the following signs:
Labial edema: the lips increase in volume, being affected by inflammation. This leads to difficulty speaking and taking in food.
Gingival edema: inflammation of the gums leads to a susceptibility of the gums to damage during chewing.
Aphthous and ulcerative lesions: these are painful and, left untreated, can become over-infected. They reduce the quality of the oral stage of swallowing and can cause other gastric pathologies.
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease
This is a fairly common condition. Regurgitation of gastric contents with an acidic pH leads to a drop in oral pH to below 5.5. Acidic pH has the property of dissolving enamel; the most affected being the inner surfaces of the teeth, as the acid comes from within the body.
Once the enamel is eroded, we have dentin exposure, which will generate sensitivity when consuming foods and liquids with extreme temperatures. In cases of more severe erosion, dentin sensitivity is always present. Enamel erosion also increases the incidence of dental caries.
Proper dental care and acidity control helps to decrease the prevalence of erosion. However, once enamel is eroded, it no longer has the ability to regenerate. Therefore, early recognition and patient education is the most effective treatment.
Anemia: It is known as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells. It can also be defined as a decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the tissues. The anemic patient feels tired, weak, breaths less freely and has an inability to exercise. Severe anemia may be accompanied by confusion, even fainting. Oral manifestations are as follows:
Glossitis: This is inflammation of the tongue. May be the first oral sign of anemia. The tongue becomes redder, more inflamed, the papillae on the tongue atrophy, taking on a smooth appearance.
Recurrent thrush: They are painful and always recur following treatment. When canker sores reappear at regular intervals, a specialist consultation is indicated to detect a possible anemia.
Candidiasis : White deposits in the oral cavity that give the mucous membranes and tongue a greasy appearance. These are removed by hygiene. It should be noted that white patches which cannot be removed by scraping may be signs of the development of a cancerous pathology.
In general, it is important to pay attention to oral signs and symptoms and to consult a doctor if such manifestations occur, so that the underlying cause can be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. Through proactive action and constant attention to health, quality of life can be improved and future complications can be prevented.
The oral cavity is often an environment in which the effects of diseases affecting other organs spread. Through effective brushing we can reduce the negative effects that systemic diseases can have at this level.
In conclusion, oral manifestations of systemic gastrointestinal and hematological diseases can be important signs of a more serious health problem and should be taken into account when assessing general health.
It is essential to consult a doctor if such manifestations occur so that the underlying cause can be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible.
In addition, a healthy lifestyle and proper oral hygiene can help to prevent and control these conditions and improve overall health. It is important to monitor oral health frequently and maintain open communication with your doctor about any new or persistent signs or symptoms.