Bleeding as an emergency in the dental surgery

Dental emergencies occur quite frequently and the patient needs to know how to follow a few basic steps to help make subsequent treatment successful.

Naturally, patients become alarmed the moment they notice spontaneous bleeding from the oral cavity.

This is because, unfortunately, long-lasting bleeds, especially those that occur constantly during feeding or brushing, are often ignored by the patient.

Prolonged bleeding during brushing or chewing can hide severe gingival damage that will spread to the underlying bone, leading to marginal periodontitis, also known as periodontal disease.

The causes of bleeding gums will be explained below:

  • Bacterial plaque – abundant deposits of bacterial plaque, which accumulate as a result of poor hygiene applied by the patient lead to inflammation of the gums, which will end up bleeding at the slightest oral trauma.

The increased amount of bacterial plaque drives the body’s non-specific defence cells.

These formations will migrate to the site of bacterial proliferation and attempt to neutralize the infectious agents.

As a side effect of the intense metabolic processes, the gum will become swollen.

  • Dental calculus – is the deposition of mineral-organic substances on hard tooth surfaces.

Most often, tartar occurs in the region of the lower front teeth. The consistent deposits of tartar can press on the gums, which will be pushed downwards.

With this mechanical pressure, the gums react with inflammation and bleeding.

  • Systemic diseases, such as diabetes, cause an impairment of microcirculation throughout the body.

  • Thus, the capillaries located in the gum area are also affected, making them more fragile and more susceptible to perforation.

  • The result is the appearance of bleeding gums, on top of the other conditions that diabetes brings.

  • Thus, patients suffering from diabetes experience generalized dryness of the oral mucosa and may therefore experience difficulties when wearing removable dentures.

  • Also, due to the dryness of the mucous membranes, ulcerative lesions and tenderness may appear on their surfaces, especially when the patient eats hot or spicy foods.

  • Vitamin C deficiency may be a factor in gum bleeding. Thus, especially in children, marked gingival bleeding and especially spontaneous bleeding can be a warning sign in terms of blood levels of vitamin C. In vitamin C deficiency, blood vessels are more permeable and the pathogenicity of resident bacteria in the oral flora increases.

Bleeding can also occur following trauma and then manifestations most commonly include painful symptoms. Children are the most affected by dental trauma, which occurs mainly in the form of play accidents.

It is important that parents follow some guidelines to help implement successful treatment.

Thus, if the tooth breaks as a result of the trauma, it is important that the caregiver keeps this fragment in milk and not in a dry environment, so that the doctor can try to reposition it.

Also, the time between the traumatic injury and the time of presentation to the doctor is crucial to the success of the treatment.

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