Gingival fibromatosis. Signs. Treatment
The gum is the soft tissue firmly attached to dental units by periodontal ligaments.
With a role in protecting the deep periodontal structures, the gingiva is highly sensitive, reacting immediately with inflammation and bleeding in case of irritating factors.
Gingival fibromatosis is an inherited, genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal, increased gingival volume, which covers the dental crowns to varying degrees.
Gingival growth can be generalized, affecting all teeth, or localized, occurring only in certain areas of the oral cavity.
Signs that help us recognize gingival fibromatosis
Color – from this point of view, the appearance of the gums is healthy, with a pink, physiological hue.
Consistency – fibrous, being firmly attached to the dental crowns
Does not show inflammation or bleeding
Volume – the only parameter that is altered in gingival fibromatosis is its visibly increased volume, occupying a significant part of the dental arches.
Thus, gingival fibromatosis represents a cellular hypertrophy, a benign proliferation that affects the dental crowns in varying proportions, in severe cases even covering them completely and deforming the hard palate.
In low- and medium-intensity fibromatosis, the problem is only aesthetic, whereas in severe cases the functional component will also be affected:
Mastication – dental crowns completely covered by gum tissue will not be able to perform their incision and chewing functions, seriously disrupting the digestive system. Biting on the gums causes inflammation and bleeding and increases the risk of infection.
Phonation – the position of the tongue in relation to the palate and dental oral surfaces during phonation will be altered, thus producing altered sounds.
Hygiene – a hyperplastic gingiva is a collecting medium for bacteria, giving them the space and conditions for growth and toxic expression.
In general, in the case of gingival fibromatosis, surgical treatment is chosen, consisting of excision of the excess tissue by gingivectomy, followed by shaping of the remaining tissue, a procedure called gingivoplasty.
The risk of recurrence is increased especially in cases of severe gingival fibromatosis.
To optimize healing, we use thermoformed guards that reduce post-operative bleeding and also provide a proper healing guide. However, prior to surgical treatment, the oral cavity must be cleaned by scaling and professional brushing to provide a working field as free as possible from bacteria.
As gingival fibromatosis is a benign proliferation, it is important to know how to differentiate it from a malignant tumor:
The expansion of fibromatosis is only on the surface and does not invade deep into the tissues, which is common in malignant tumors.
They do not metastasize.
Not accompanied by general manifestations such as asthenia, weight loss or fever.
They have a homogeneous appearance, a pink color over the entire surface, without ulceration.
Fibromatosis is thus manifested only by an aberrant increase in the volume of gum tissue.
It is a pathology easily recognised clinically by the dentist and familial aggregation is a factor in its diagnosis.
After analyzing the severity of the pathology, the dentist will propose the appropriate therapeutic steps.
However, the patient must understand the relapsing nature of fibromatosis and come for regular check-ups to ensure the effectiveness of treatment.