Clinical forms of gingivitis

Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gums that can be caused by the accumulation of plaque and tartar bacteria on the teeth and gums. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontal disease, which can lead to tooth loss.

There are several clinical forms of gingivitis, including:

Acute marginal gingivitis: this is the most common form of gingivitis and is characterized by red inflammation, swelling and bleeding gums at the gum margin.

Necrotizing gingivitis: this form of gingivitis is characterized by the appearance of necrotizing lesions (tissue death) on the gums and can be caused by bacteria such as fusobacterium necrophorum or prevotella intermedia.

Pigmented gingivitis: this form of gingivitis is caused by the accumulation of pigments in the gum tissue and is manifested by the appearance of brown or black spots on the gums.

Herpetic gingivitis: this form of gingivitis is caused by the herpes simplex virus and is manifested by the appearance of painful blisters and gum inflammation.

Gingivitis gravidarum: this form of gingivitis develops during pregnancy and can be caused by hormonal changes that affect the gums’ reaction to bacteria.

Treatment for gingivitis may include professional cleaning of the teeth, proper oral hygiene at home and, in some cases, drug treatments. It is important to pay attention to the signs of gingivitis and consult a dentist for proper treatment and prevention of disease progression.

In summary, gingivitis can have several clinical forms, each with specific symptoms and treatments. It is important to pay attention to the signs of gingivitis and consult a dentist for proper diagnosis and treatment.


The gums are pink, adherent tissues of the teeth’s collar, which, together with the alveolar bone, anchor them to the arches. Their texture is a firm, orange-peel texture in a healthy oral cavity.

Gingivitis occurs when the gums become inflamed as a result of harmful factors spread throughout the oral cavity. A number of these will be presented below:

Food or hard bodies injuring the gums – the effect is transient, after removal of the stimulus, the gums will recover within a few days

Bacterial plaque – is a yellow-grey structure that adheres firmly to the teeth and contains bacteria encased in a matrix of salivary proteins and saccharides. It cannot be removed by rinsing with water, but only by mechanical brushing or other auxiliary means.

Apparently healthy gums usually have a thin, adherent layer of plaque consisting of several rows of cells. Gingivitis and, later, chronic periodontitis in adults are associated with a thicker layer of bacterial plaque.

Chronic gingivitis

They are induced by dental plaque and are ubiquitous, as the dividing line between normal gingiva and gingivitis is difficult to establish. Stabilized gingivitis manifests 1-3 weeks after plaque build-up and can persist for years without progressing. The gingival border may shift towards the root as a consequence of plaque accumulation, thus forming the gingival pocket.

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

This is a painful inflammation of the gums that progresses rapidly and can become acute or chronic. Along with chronic gingivitis, ulcerative-necrotizing gingivitis is one of the most common gum diseases.

The disease is more common in young people, smokers, with poor or poor oral hygiene which favors the formation of plaque. Local and general factors that favor ulcerative-necrotic gingivitis, besides bacterial plaque, a pre-existing gingivitis or genetic predisposition are:

  • poor local hygiene

  • the presence of areas that retain plaque

  • poor health,

  • fatigue or mental stress,

  • smoking

  • age

Clinical symptoms are:

  • pain, as the first symptom;

  • necrosis and ulceration;

  • halitosis


  1. Prevention of gingivitis is essential to avoid its progression and complications. The main methods of preventing gingivitis are:

  2. Proper oral hygiene: this includes brushing teeth twice a day with toothpaste and flossing to remove food debris from the interdental spaces.

  3. Regular visits to the dentist: these visits are important for monitoring the condition of the gums and for professional cleaning of the teeth and gums.

  4. Healthy eating: avoiding foods high in sugar and refined carbohydrates can help prevent bacteria from building up in the mouth.

  5. Stop smoking: smoking can cause gum inflammation and reduce the effectiveness of gingivitis treatment.

Stress management: stress can have a negative impact on the immune system and worsen gingivitis symptoms.

It is important to address gingivitis at the first signs and consult a dentist for appropriate treatment. Treating gingivitis early can prevent it from progressing and help maintain the health of your gums and teeth.

In conclusion, gingivitis is a common condition that can have several clinical forms and can progress if not treated in time. Prevention of gingivitis can be achieved through proper oral hygiene, regular visits to the dentist, healthy eating, stopping smoking and stress management. Treating gingivitis early can prevent it from progressing and help maintain healthy gums and teeth.


Treatment consists of scaling and oral hygiene. Mouth rinses with mouthwash twice a day are recommended.

Other types of gingivitis are:

Puberty gingivitis

The changes and intense hormonal activity of puberty also induce changes in the gums. These changes disappear when hormonal activity reduces in intensity.

Pregnancy gingivitis

It is one of the most common dental pathologies faced by pregnant women and it is uncomplicated. After childbirth, it goes into remission. It affects about 50% of mothers-to-be who experience bleeding during chewing. The gums lose their normal pinkish color and become red, swollen and automatically softer. To the touch, one can appreciate the altered consistency but also an increased degree of sensitivity.

Menstrual and intermenstrual gingivitis

Occurs less frequently than other types of gingivitis and remits after 2-3 days.

Gingivitis secondary to contraceptives

Occurs in women taking contraceptives. If the symptoms do not improve after a few days with good oral hygiene, specialist consultation is recommended, with a view to changing the medication or even stopping it.

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