Treatment of ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity

Ulcers of the oral cavity are commonly found in the mucous membranes lining the oral cavity.

Patients often do not report these problems until they are painful and interfere with the functions of the dento-maxillary apparatus such as phonation or chewing.

At other times, they are simply detected during a routine check-up or when the patient presents to the dentist for other types of treatment, which are aimed at other areas of the oral cavity.

The main investigation to determine the origin and causes of oral ulcers is the clinical examination.

Thus, ulcers vary in shape and size according to the factor that caused them and influences their development.

If the cause of the ulceration was an excess filling, an unfractured edge or a fractured prosthetic crown, the ulceration is local, strictly at the place where the traumatic agent acts.

On the other hand, when the cause of the ulceration is a general disease such as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS, ulcerative lesions are found over large areas of the oral cavity, occupying a large part of it.

Also, ulcerative lesions occurring as an early form of cancer have a preferential disposition at the edge of the tongue or in the buccal floor, i.e. immediately under the tongue.

Other investigations that may be carried out to determine the cause of ulcerative lesions are blood tests to detect the existence of infection in the body or biopsy to determine whether the lesion is cancerous or not.


Treatment of mouth ulcers differs depending on the cause of what caused them. Most of the time, these lesions heal within a few days if there is no reservoir in the oral cavity to sustain the lesion. Treatment involves:

Avoiding high-temperature or spicy foods until the ulcerative lesions heal – foods in this category can lead to pain when eaten at a time when lesions are present in the oral cavity. The healing time can also be considerably increased.

Increased fluid intake leads to the removal of substances from the oral cavity that have the potential to aggravate ulcers, speeding up healing.

If pain occurs and persists, paracetamol-type painkillers may be given.

There are also products available in pharmacies in the form of gels or ointments that reduce painful discomfort and speed healing.

If the ulceration was caused by the Herpes Simplex virus, then the cause is treated and antiviral medication is used.

If a white, candidal plaque is superimposed over the ulcerative lesions, antifungal medication is of choice.

Mouthwash contains antiseptic substances that reduce the bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Using this twice a day, following brushing, has satisfactory results in promoting healing.

In order to prevent ulcer recurrences, it is recommended to pay more attention to brushing the teeth and oral mucosa to reduce the bacterial flora. Dental consultation can also detect iatrogenic or anatomical causes that could lead to ulceration.

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