Mouth sores

Sometimes it is enough to face a stressful situation, a hormonal disorder or a slight decrease in the immune system and these small injuries appear on the oral mucosa and tongue, affecting the functions of speech, chewing and swallowing, being very painful.

Mouth sores are the most common recurrent ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. They appear particularly in women and young adults with a prevalence of between 5-66%. They have an oval shape, are very painful, and are covered with yellowish-white pseudomembranes surrounded by an erythematous halo.

Canker sores can occur individually or grouped on the oral mucosa or on the tongue, but can sometimes occur in the throat

The causes of canker sores

The causes of canker sores are still not well known, but most likely some reactions are immune to some factors. Possible contributing factors may be genetic, microbial (Streptococcus Sanguis, Streptococcus Mitis), viral (herpes simplex, varicella zoster), food allergens (nuts, chocolate, gluten, honey, fermented cheese) or nutritional deficiencies (lack Folic acid, vitamin B, Crohn’s disease).

Endocrynopathies, stress, minor trauma, menstrual cycle may be other triggers.

Recurrent Canker sores are divided into two categories:

• Minor aphthous ulcers

– These are the most common (about 80% of cases) that occur mainly in young adult women. They initially appear as erythematous patches that for the next 24-48h are followed by burning, paresthesia or local hyperesthesia. Canker sores are small round shaped with a diameter less than 1 cm, very painful, covered by yellow tissue and surrounded by erythematous halo. They can be single or multiple and spontaneously heal in 7-14 days without scarring, but commonly recur at intervals of 1-5 months

• Major aphthous ulcers

– Is a severe form of minor ulcers, are large, destructive, persist and recur more often. They occur mainly in children and young adults, causing dysphagia, dysphonia, but do not affect the patient’s general condition. They are asymmetrical, unilateral, 1-5 cm in diameter, with necrotic center surrounded by the failure and they not bleed. They can be single or multiple; they are very painful, deep, crateriform, and the healing leaves scar. They recur frequently in 1-3 months, becoming exasperating.

Treatment plan

No medication does not provide complete cure, but the goal of treatment is to alleviate pain, to prevent infection, to shorten the lesion evolution and to prevent the recurrence whenever possible. Use anti-inflammatories, oral antiseptic, topical anesthetics and antifungals. Benefic effect is obtained by using Benadryl, local anesthetics like Xylocaine 2% which temporarily suppress pain, and for severe forms it is further recommended local injections of steroids or general administration of corticosteroids (prednisone should be administered and monitored on specialty service). In addition, a rigorous hygiene of oral cavity is very important – it helps avoiding infection and bacterial canker sores and accelerates the healing process.

Preventing thrush

It is recommended whenever possible to avoid excessively cold or hot food, spicy, acidic or citrus irritants such as peanuts or strengthen your immune system and with a diet rich in vitamins. Also, remove local irritative factors such as dental work incorrectly adjusted, unfinished fillings or with sharp edges from the mouth.

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