Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is a chromosomal disorder that can be observed in children from birth, affecting the body from the moment of conception.

Even though life expectancy is around 50 years, these patients are faced with a number of systemic pathologies that make life difficult. Some of these pathologies also manifest themselves in the oral cavity.

Gingival inflammation – due to the varying degrees of mental retardation that patients suffering from Down’s syndrome possess, oral cavity hygiene can be carried out more or less satisfactorily.

Thus, important plaque deposits will be found on the teeth, which will lead in time to caries and periodontal problems.

The first step is the inflammation of the gums, and then, by vacuuming, they recede. As the gums recede, they will expose more of the tooth surface, thus causing sensitivity and mobility.

Delayed healing of oral injuries – due to a depressed immune system, any intervention or trauma to the oral cavity will have delayed healing. Also, during surgical treatments, prolonged and heavier bleeding can be expected.

Xerostomia – dryness of the oral mucosa leads to cracking and with low immunity, there is a real risk of superinfection. These patients are also prone to develop mouth ulcers.

Delayed eruption of teeth – patients have a degree of retardation that manifests itself in most organs. Thus, teeth are also affected, either they will erupt later or never, or they will have enamel abnormalities.

Other alterations in health status that patients with trisomy 21 frequently have affect organs and systems throughout the body.

Cardiac pathologies – are found with increased frequency and affect in particular the development of the heart valves.

Thus, the patient with Down syndrome will have valvular dysfunction, most commonly mitral valve prolapses.

The caregiver should mention this during the history, as patients with valvular damage are at increased risk of bacterial endocarditis and the protocol before any bleeding maneuver includes the administration of antibiotics.

Low immune system – the patient with Down’s syndrome is at increased risk of developing infections that can affect any part of the body and can threateningly spread to other, initially unaffected structures. They are more susceptible to developing thrush and candidiasis.

Hypotonia – is the decreased force of contraction of muscles and can affect any area. Failure of muscles to contract within physiological limits leads to changes in posture.

Oral and perioral muscle damage can lead to disturbances during chewing and swallowing and to the characteristic facial expression where the patient cannot bring his or her lips together, always with the mouth ajar.

Decreased hearing acuity – can affect patients with Down syndrome to varying degrees. This problem can be compensated for by wearing a hearing aid.

Visual impairment – eyeball pathologies include strabismus, glaucoma and cataracts. This makes it difficult for the patient to cope on their own. This is why they need to be assisted or even helped by a carer when brushing their teeth.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs in about 1 in 700 births. This disorder is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which leads to the development of specific physical and intellectual characteristics. People with Down syndrome have physical, mental and behavioral peculiarities that need to be taken into account in their approach to medical care, education and social integration.

One of the most obvious features of patients with Down syndrome is their physical appearance. They often have a round face, almond-shaped eyes, small ears and a large tongue that can affect speech and swallowing. Patients with Down syndrome may also have slower physical development and are more prone to obesity and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

In terms of intellectual development, people with Down syndrome have a lower IQ than the population average. They may have difficulties in learning and developing social skills. However, with appropriate education and individualized attention, many people with Down’s syndrome can learn and develop social skills, leading to independent living.

Patients with Down syndrome may also be prone to specific health problems. These include congenital heart disease, thyroid problems, vision and hearing impairments, eating problems and a greater susceptibility to respiratory infections. It is important that these patients receive regular medical monitoring and appropriate treatment to prevent or treat health problems.

Patients with Down syndrome may also exhibit specific behaviors, such as a high level of anxiety, a tendency towards routine and a need for structure in their daily lives. While these characteristics can be difficult to manage, patients can benefit from behavioral therapy and counselling to help them develop social skills and manage their anxiety.

Conclusions In română scris gresit Conculziii

Patients with Down syndrome have specific physical, mental and behavioral peculiarities that need to be taken into account in their medical care and education. However, many patients with Down syndrome can develop their skills and live independent lives with individualized attention and appropriate support. It is important for health and education professionals to be well informed about the particularities of these patients and to provide personalized care tailored to the individual needs of each patient with Down syndrome.

It is also important to create an inclusive and friendly environment for people with Down syndrome in their community. Social integration can be a key factor in their development and in increasing their self-confidence. In this respect, it is important to have specific programs for these patients to help them develop social skills and get involved in the community.

Understanding the particularities of patients with Down syndrome can help to provide appropriate care, develop their skills and integrate them into the community. It is important to provide personalized support tailored to the individual needs of each patient, while building an inclusive and friendly environment for them.

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