Antibiotics in pregnancy

Number of pregnant women who use drugs without prescription (recipe) is increasing. The most commonly used are antiemetics, antacids, antihistamines, analgesics, antibiotics, tranquilizers, hypnotics. Class antibiotics and antimicrobials we list are some most common and their effects on pregnancy and fetus.


Broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are part of the group: tetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, minocycline.

Tetracyclines cross the placenta and concentrates stored in bones and teeth and fetal combining with calcium; risk period is from mid to late pregnancy.

In children exposed to tetracycline in utero, yellow teeth can be even more exposed to decay, enamel hypoplasia and can occur in bone growth retardation. Therefore, tetracyclines should be avoided after the first trimester of pregnancy and in children under 8 years. In infants with cerebral pseudotumor syndrome may increase intracranial pressure and bulging fontanels.


Of this group belong gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, amikacin. All aminoglycosides are ototoxic and nephrotoxic. Streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin part of ototoxic drugs (affecting hearing and balance), they can pass through the placenta and destroy fetal labyrinth (inner ear).

However their effectiveness in treating life-threatening diseases can preponderance of the risks. Chloramphenicol, even when it is administered to the mother at high doses, does not affect the fetus; Yet I can not metabolize infants adequately, resulting in circulatory collapse (gray baby syndrome). Chloramphenicol, although it has a broad spectrum of activity, should be reserved for severe infections when other antibiotics are not as efficiently or are toxic, it can cause aplastic raranemie by bone marrow depression (ie bone marrow stops producing red blood cells).

From their group are: penicillin G, V, Ospen, moldamin, oxacillin, and broad-spectrum penicillins – ampicillin, amoxicillin, augmentin, amoxiclav, Ospamox. Penicillins appear to be safe.


They have prolonged action and pass through the placenta; they can displace bilirubin from binding sites – if given before week 34 of pregnancy. Placenta effectively excrete bilirubin, or near birth the infant may develop jaundice.

An exception is sulfasalazine (whose metabolite has a low activity fetal bilirubin replacement, with minimal risk to the fetus). A combination of a sulfonamide antibiotic is Biseptol +, which has other names like Bactrim. Under no circumstances should not be administered sulfonamides near term pregnant women and newborns!


In this category are: cephalexin, ceftriaxone and are often administered during pregnancy, but studies in humans could not exclude the possibility of impairment; should be used during pregnancy only if really necessary.

Quinolones and fluoroquinolones

Among them: Zanocin, Nolicin are generally used to treat urinary infections.

The use of quinolones in pregnancy was recently put into question as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin have high affinity for bone and cartilage can produce aches in children exposed so far are contraindicated in children and pregnant women.

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