Bone augmentation in the context of dentistry is a complex and specialized surgical procedure to restore volume and integrity to the mandibular or maxillary bone.
This procedure becomes essential in situations where the native bone stock has thinned so much that dental implants can no longer be successfully inserted.
After extraction of a tooth, the natural process of bone resorption becomes inevitable in the alveolar region. In the first year after extraction, about 25% of the original bone volume is lost. In the later stages, this resorption continues, at a slower rate, up to 40%-60% in three years and even less than 3 mm five years after extraction in the case of bone that was initially 8 mm thick.
For these reasons, bone augmentation surgery often becomes necessary, especially when jaw structures critical for physiognomy and functionality are affected.
This procedure becomes crucial in regions that are intensely stressed in the masticatory process, thus ensuring the success of subsequent dental implants.
By expanding the bone volume, the possibility of inserting larger implants becomes a reality, which gives the dental implant increased stability.
Improved stability allows the implant to respond more effectively to masticatory demands.
Bone augmentation surgery can be performed at the same time as the insertion of dental implants or as a separate procedure, depending on the severity of the bone deficiency.
It is important to note that bone augmentation surgery is performed under local anesthesia, which ensures patient comfort. Although the procedure itself is complex, the patient will perceive it as an ordinary dental procedure and post-operative discomfort will be minimal, due to the administration of analgesics.
Materials used for bone augmentation include autogenous bone (taken from the patient himself), animal bone substitutes, resorbable membranes and calcium phosphate-based products, among others.
Autogenous bone is harvested from regions of the patient’s oral cavity and placed in the affected area to stimulate bone healing.
However, this method may involve another incision and additional surgery for the patient.
The animal bone substitute, for example bovine bone, is treated and sterilized to prevent rejection reactions or infection. Although the common perception is that the bone added through the bone augmentation procedure becomes part of the patient’s own bone, in fact the artificial bone provides support for the growth of the patient’s own bone cells until the patient’s own bone fully replaces the artificial bone.
Sinus lift surgery is a specific approach to bone augmentation, applied especially in cases where the absence of teeth affects the posterior area of the upper jaw.
This procedure involves lifting the maxillary sinus to create space for implants and to allow bone regeneration in this area essential for oral restoration.
Oral rehabilitation of patients with dental implants can be extremely challenging, especially when teeth are missing in the posterior region of the upper jaw. In such cases, bone resorption after extraction can lead to an increase in the size of the maxillary sinus, complicating the insertion of implants in this area.
Sinus lift surgery, also known as a sinus lift, is a vital solution in these circumstances. This specialized procedure results in increased bone volume in the affected area by creating the necessary space and adjusting the level of the maxillary sinus. Through this procedure, the lower part of the sinus can be transformed into bone tissue, thus providing a solid platform for the insertion of dental implants.
Therefore, bone augmentation and sinus lift surgery are high-precision surgical approaches in dentistry with the aim of restoring the functionality and aesthetic appearance of patients’ teeth. These complex procedures are performed under local anesthesia, thus ensuring comfort and minimizing pain sensation for patients.
Postoperative discomfort is also reduced by administering pain relief medication.
The materials used in these procedures are rigorously selected to ensure biocompatibility and success of the procedure. From autogenous bone harvested from the patient’s own body or bone substitutes of animal origin, to resorbable membranes and calcium phosphate-based products, each element plays an essential role in the bone regeneration and strengthening process.
In conclusion, bone augmentation and sinus lift surgery are advanced techniques in dentistry designed to restore functionality and aesthetics to the teeth.
These procedures, performed with precision and expertise, restore not only patients’ smiles, but also their confidence in their ability to chew and speak without restriction, thus restoring their overall quality of life.