Why is extraction of impacted wisdom teeth indicated?

Why is extraction of impacted wisdom teeth indicated?

Wisdom molars, also popularly known as wisdom teeth, are teeth that erupt later in the dental arches, around the age of 18.

In some cases, if the jaws are underdeveloped, these molars no longer have room to erupt normally at the dental arches.

Thus, they either impinge into the previously located 12-year-old molars or remain embedded in the bone, partially or totally at certain levels, making them easier or harder to extract.

Dental inclusions occur when a tooth cannot erupt at the level of the dental arches and remains in the bone after its normal eruption period. When the tooth is entirely in the bone, the inclusion is called a full inclusion.

Wisdom molars are extracted not only when they cause infection, inflammation and pain. They can also be extracted preventively, when the doctor finds that there is not enough room for their eruption on the arch.

Other reasons for extracting impacted teeth:

  • If the molar is only partially impacted and a small part of its crown is visible to the naked eye, then it means that it is covered by a small portion of gum. This can harbour bacteria at its level but also underneath it and cause caries or pericoronitis.

  • Halena can be another consequence of bacterial build-up in the gum lining.

  • If the patient opts for a treatment involving the application of an orthodontic appliance, wisdom teeth can make it difficult for the treatment to go smoothly. Therefore, before orthodontic treatment begins, the specialist may recommend extractions of wisdom teeth and other teeth (usually premolars) that may hinder the desired results.

  • Joint pain or difficulty in chewing may be causes of wisdom teeth inclusion.

  • If the wisdom molars are impacted in an unnatural position and may cause damage to the surrounding teeth or soft structures, their extraction is also recommended.

Extraction of wisdom molars is performed by performing a local anesthetic, removing a full-thickness flap through which the doctor will create a corresponding access to see the molar or the bone covering it.

Further, if the molar is only inlaid in soft tissue, it will be luxated and extracted in the same manner as a tooth normally located at the dental arches.

On the other hand, if the tooth is embedded in bone, the doctor will proceed by milling under cooling the bone covering the tooth until it is uncovered.

After extraction of the impacted molar, the socket is thoroughly cleaned and then sutured to create the conditions for optimal healing.

Recovery is usually easy, but swelling and pain may occur, especially on the first and second postoperative day. If the patient follows the instructions given by the doctor, the whole recovery process will be easier to bear.

Doctors guide patients to have wisdom teeth extracted before the roots are fully formed, making the whole process easier and the procedure much more simplified.

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