Lesions of the tongue – lingual fibroid

The oral cavity is made up of tissues of different consistencies, shapes and therefore roles.

Therefore, pathologies occurring at this level can take a multitude of forms and need to be well differentiated from those at risk of malignancy.

Every patient has, at some point, formations on the tongue, gums, palate or oral mucosa, which they may notice or which, because of their small size, they may overlook.

At other times, the patient ignores them. Even if the lesions are small in size and do not interfere with functional movements, it is important for the patient to see the dentist, because not infrequently small tumor formations can hide diagnoses with a serious prognosis.

It is not a rule that every pathological formation encountered is a malignant lesion but the patient should be cautious, take care of his health and be concerned about maintaining a good general condition.

There are also small swellings that occur normally, especially on the tongue. These are the papillae, which play a role in receiving taste and transmitting it on to the integrating centers in the brain.

Taste buds can be found on the back of the tongue, on the front or on the side of the tongue, each with a predefined role in the reception of a particular taste sensation.

The tongue is a sensitive organ, and can perceive many tastes, textures and temperature variations. However, as a highly sensitive organ, it often suffers from aggressors in the external environment.

Among the roles of the tongue are:

  • Speech – it helps pronounce certain consonants and shapes the amount of air that is emitted so that the sounds are ultimately clear.

  • Chewing – by pressing food onto the hard palate, the tongue plays a role in shredding and thus in the first stage of the digestion process. The tongue also guides food to the dental arches to be crushed.

  • Taste reception – through the papillae present on the entire surface of the tongue, taste sensations are transmitted further to the nerve centers.

  • Forming the food bowl – the tongue helps to collect and form the food bowl after it has been crushed by the back teeth.


A pathological formation that occurs quite often in the tongue is lingual fibroma. It has a traumatic etiology and can occur in the following situations:

  • Dental caries – as a result of carious processes, the teeth may lose their natural contour and present sharp cusps and slopes that embarrass the tongue, eventually leading to the appearance of fibroma.

  • Incorrectly fitted prosthetic work – any edge that does not fit the natural contour of the dental arches after restoration leads to chronic damage to the tongue or oral mucosa. The result, in the end, is the same, lingual fibroma.

  • Vicious habits – frequent biting at the edges of the tongue as part of a nervous tic or vicious habit.

Tongue fibroma is the result of prolonged mechanical irritation and is surgically excised.

It is a simple, routine procedure that does not produce aesthetic defects afterwards. However, it is imperative that the cause of the fibroid is removed after excision, otherwise it will recur.

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